C++ OpenSSL Fetch SSL Certificate

Any website running SSL on port 443 has a certificate, which can be downloaded and parsed. The certificate is available downloaded through the SSL handshake, but is not a typical file downloaded via HTTP. Included below is C/C++ code for programmatically downloading an SSL certificate.

The easy way to download an SSL certificate on linux is through openssl s_client command.
openssl s_client -connect encrypted.google.com:443

before compiling
sudo apt-get install libssl-dev #debian based
yum install openssl-devel #redhat based

compile on linux
g++ main.cpp -lssl

main.cpp (replace with the ip address of the server whose certificate you wish to fetch)
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <openssl/x509.h>
#include <openssl/ssl.h>
int main(int argc, char **argv)
    struct sockaddr_in sa;
    SSL*     ssl;
    X509*    server_cert;
    SSL_CTX* ctx = SSL_CTX_new (SSLv23_method());
    int sd = ::socket (AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0);//create socket
    if (sd!=-1 && ctx!=NULL)
        memset (&sa, '\0', sizeof(sa));
        sa.sin_family      = AF_INET;
        sa.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr ("");   /* Server IP */
        sa.sin_port        = htons     (443);           /* Server Port number */
        int err = ::connect(sd, (struct sockaddr*) &sa, sizeof(sa));
        if (err!=-1)
            ssl = SSL_new (ctx);
            if (ssl!=NULL)
                SSL_set_fd(ssl, sd);
                err = SSL_connect(ssl);
                if (err!=-1)
                    server_cert = SSL_get_peer_certificate(ssl);
                    if (server_cert!=NULL)
                        BIO * bio_out = BIO_new_file("output.pem", "w");
                        if (bio_out)
                            X509_print(bio_out, server_cert);//parsed
                            PEM_write_bio_X509(bio_out, server_cert);
                        X509_free (server_cert);
                SSL_free (ssl);
            ::close(sd);//close socket
    SSL_CTX_free (ctx);
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